Baroque architecture was born in early 17th century Italy from the humanist forms of Renaissance architecture and grew into a grand triumph expression of the Catholic Church and State. The main characteristics of Baroque architecture include the use of florid sculpture, color, light, shade, trompe l oeil paintings, colorful frescoes, and gilded everything with grand intensity. While the cultural movement of the Renaissance was commissioned and showcased by Italian nobility, Baroque architecture showed the power, glory and wealth of the Catholic Church, a sure Counter-Reformation attack. Baroque design first appeared in churches, but by the mid 17th century this grand style was seen throughout Europe in stately homes and palaces.